To maximise glycogen stores (stored glucose) ready for energy release during exercise you should aim to consume a high glycaemic, high carbohydrate diet to deliver enough carbs to trigger the formation of glycogen stores.
How Much: Approximately 8-10g of carbs per kg bodyweight e.g. 80kg male = 640-800g carbs per day.
When: Approximately 30-60g every hour in a 6-8% solution (close to that of an average isotonic beverage).
Carbohydrate & Protein
To fully utilise carbs and protein, ingest a carb to protein ratio of 4:1, this promotes glycogen re-synthesis and storage and causes an insulin surge to optimise protein absorption.
How Much: Consume 1-2g protein per kg bodyweight. Combine this with 15-20g of moderate to quick release carbohydrate such as Maltodextrin to increase protein and glycogen synthesis further still.
When: Within an hour before exercise, 30mins after, or both.
The addition of Creatine e.g. Creatine Monohydrate to a protein and carb supplement regimen was seen to invoke enhanced training capacity and adaptations. Creatine serves to increase power, strength, short term endurance and concentration when exercising.
How Much: The quickest way of increasing creatine stores in muscle is to consume approx 0.3 grams of creatine monohydrate per kg of bodyweight for the first 3 days (loading phase to achieve tissue saturation). Then consume 0.05-0.1grams per kg bodyweight (3-5 grams) a day in order to maintain the muscle creatine stores (maintenance phase).
When: Consume Creatine monohydrate approximately 1-2 hours prior to your training session for maximal results. Creatine is stored in the muscles until it is needed and cannot be used by any other organs within the body except for muscle, so it will sit there ready and waiting for you to use it.
International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. (2008) Journal of the international society of sports nutrition. 5:17